Health is a serious matter. Nothing of what we do is left to chance.
The therapeutic programs installed in our devices are the result of an extensive bibliographic research. An analysis of thousands of clinical studies was made using the database of PubMed, one of the most authoritative portals in medical literature. From these articles we have extracted the therapy parameters which our range of products are based on.

Below you can find other clinical studies used as reference:

    1. Gigante G., Severini G., Terapia fisica strumentale. Editore Ermes – 1997, Milano;
    2. Rocco N., Zucco F., Il dolore muscolo scheletrico. Editore Verduci – 1990 Roma;
    3. USL N°9, Attività di fisioterapia nel servizio di patologia da sport 1989-1993. Sanvitese S.Vito al Tagliamento (PN);
    4. Gialanella B., D’Alessandro G., Santoro R., Terapia fisica pratica. Editore Marrapese – 1994 Roma;
    5. Risaliti M., Elettrostimolazione: metodica integrativa di potenziamento muscolare. AIPAC – 1997.
    6. Cossu M., Elettroterapia. Basi fisiologiche ed applicazioni cliniche. Editore Ghedini – 1991 Milano;
    7. Drigo – Juliani, Elettroterapia. Enciclopedia Medica Italiana USES, II edizione – 1979 Firenze;
    8. Farneti R., Terapia fisica e riabilitazione. Editore Wasserman – 1972 Milano;
    9. Izzo, La stimolazione elettrica transcutanea nella terapia del dolore. Editore Menarini – 1992;
    10. Kotz, Allenamento muscolare con il metodo dell‘elettrostimolatore – 1975;
    11. Lissoni, L’elettroterapia. SEE – 1979.
    12. Walsh D., TENS: Clinical Applications & Related Theory. Churchill Livingstone – 1997;
    13. Ellis B., A retrospective study of long term users of TNS. Br J Therapy & Rehabilitation 3(2);88-93 – 1996;
    14. Han J. et al., Effect of low and high frequency TENS on Metenkephalin-Arg-Phe and dynorphin A immunoreactivity in human lumbar CSF. Pain 47(3);295-298 – 1991;
    15. Garrison D., Foreman R.,Decreased activity of spontaneous & noxiously evoked dorsal horn cells during TENS. Pain 58(3);309-315 – 1994;
    16. Walsh D., Baxter, D., Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation – A review of experimental studies. Eur J Med Rehabil 6(2);42-50 – 1996;
    17. Roche P., Wright A., An investigation into the value of TENS for arthritic pain. Physio. Theory & Practice 6;25-33 – 1990;
    18. Alves-Guerreiro J., Noble G. et al., The effect of three electrotherapeutic modalities upon peripheral nerve conduction and mechanical pain threshold. Clinical Physiology 21(6): 704-711 – 2001;
    19. Bodofsky, E. , Treating carpal tunnel syndrome with lasers and TENS. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83(12): 1806; author reply 1806-7 – 2002;
    20. Brosseau L., Milne S. et al., Efficacy of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Spine 27(6): 596- 603 – 2002;
    21. Carrol E. N., Badura A. S., Focal intense brief transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for treatment of radicular and postthoracotomy pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82(2): 262-4 – 2001;
    22. Chandran P., Sluka K.A., Development of opioid tolerance with repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation administration.Pain 102: 195-201 – 2003;
    23. Chesterton L. S.,Barlas P. et al., Sensory stimulation (TENS): effects of parameter manipulation on mechanical pain thresholds in healthy human subjects. Pain 99: 253-262 – 2002;
    24. Chesterton L. S., Foster N.E. et al., Effects of TENS frequency, intensity and stimulation site parameter manipulation on pressure pain thresholds in healthy human subjects. Pain 106(1-2): 73-80 – 2003;
    25. Cosmo P., Svensson H. et al., Effects of transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the microcirculation in chronic leg ulcers. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 34(1): 61-4 – 2000;
    26. Gadsby J. G., Flowerdew M.W., Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 – 2000;
    27. Johnson M. I., The clinical effectiveness of TENS in pain management. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 12(2): 131-49 – 2000;
    28. Lone A. R., Wafai Z. A. et al., Analgesic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation compared with Diclofenac Sodium in osteoarthritis of the knee. Physiotherapy 89(8): 478-485 – 2003;
    29. Palmer, S. T., Martin D. J. et al., Effects of electric stimulation on C and A delta fiber-mediated thermal perception thresholds. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85: 119-128 – 2004;
    30. Roche P., Tan H.-Y. et al., Modification of induced ischaemic pain by placebo electrotherapy. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 18: 131-139 – 2002;
    31. Sherry J. E., Oehrlein K.M. et al., Effect of burst-mode transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on peripheral vascular resistance. Physical Therapy 81(6): 1183-91 – 2001;
    32. Sluka K. A., Walsh D., Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: basic science mechanisms and clinical effectiveness. J Pain 4(3): 109-21 – 2003;
    33. Walsh D. M., Noble G. et al., Study of the effects of various transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) parameters upon the RIII nociceptive and H-reflexes in humans. Clin Physiol 20(3): 191-9 – 2000;
    34. Wang R. Y., Chan R.C. et al., Effects of thoraco-lumbar electric sensory stimulation on knee extensor spasticity of persons who survived cerebrovascular accident (CVA). J Rehabil Res Dev 37(1): 73-9 – 2000;
    35. Interferential stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain, California Technology Assessment Forum ;
    36. Johnson M.I., Tabasam G., An investigation into the analgesic effects of different frequencies of the amplitude – modulated wave of interferential current therapy on cold – induced pain in normal subject;
    37. Ward A. R., Robertson V. J., Makowski R. J., Optimal frequencies for electrical stimulation using medium – frequency alternating current;
    38. Petersson C.J., Holmer N.G., Johnell O., Electrical stimulation of osteogenesis;
    39. Can F., Tandoğan R. et al., Rehabilitation of patellofemoral pain syndrome: TENS versus diadynamic current therapy for pain relief. The Pain Clinic 15(1):61-68 – 2003;
    40. Kiseleva S., Dvurechenskii V., Experience in using diadynamic currents in patients with acute rhinitis. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult (1):43 – 2002;
    1. Zanotti R., Coloproctologia, Stomia e incontinenza. Editore Carocci – 2006;
    2. Aspetti clinici della riabilitazione uro ginecologica. Rvista italiana Colon – Proctologia Vol.12 1993;
    3. Di Benedetto P., Zampa A., Le indagini urodinaniche nell’incontinenza urinaria da sforzo. Riabilitazione uro ginecologica. Editore Sossella – 1986 Udine;
    4. Zanollo A., Fanciullacci F., Uroriabilitazione. Neurologia e uroriabilitazione. Edizioni CLEUP – Padova 1993.
    1. Cisari, Fisioterapia Clinica Pratica. EdItore Ermes;
    2. Cossu, Elettroterapia. Editore Ghedini;
    3. Randal Braddom, Medicina fisica e Riabilitazione. Editore Delfino;
    4. Austoni E. et al, Terapia chirurgica dell’IPP: uso degli innesti dermici e in Gore Tex. Atti Workshop Internazionale su : “Progressi e ricerche sull’Impotenza”. 150, Milano, Università degli Studi – 1987;
    5. Austoni E. et al., Terapia medica del morbo di La Peyronie : valore e significato di un protocollo di trattamento farmacologico intensivo. Atti V Congresso Società Italiana di Andrologia, 47, Bologna – 1987;
    6. Austoni E. et al., RNM dinamica del pene : nostra esperienza su 68 pazienti portatori di patologia dei corpi cavernosi . Arch. It. Urol. LIX : 11-23 – 1987;
    7. Cohen E. et al., Peyronie’s Disease : surgical experienceand presentation of proximal approach. J.Urol., 142:240-242 – 1989;
    1. Bassett C.A.L., Pawluk R.J., Pilla A.A., Augmentation of bone repair by inductively coupled electromagnetic fields. Science 184, 575-577 – 1974;
    2. Bassett C.A.L., Biomedical implications of pulsing electromagnetic fields. Surgical Rounds (Jan) 22-31 – 1983;
    3. Bassett C.A.L., Valdes M.G., Hernandez E., Modification of fracture repair with selected pulsing electromagnetic fields. 1982;
    4. Goodman R., Bassett C.A.L., Henderson A.S., Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription. Science 220, 1283-1285 (1983);
    5. Barker A.T., Lunt M.J., The effects of pulsed magnetic fields of the type used in the stimulation of bone fracture. Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 4,1-27;
    6. Bassett C.A.L., Pulsing electromagnetic fields: a new approach to surgical problems. Metabolic Surgery, Edition Henry Buchwald&Richard L.Varcho pp.255-307. Grune and Stratton, New York – 1978;
    7. Pienkowski D., Pollack S.R., Brighton C.T., Griffith N.J., Low-power electromagnetic stimulation of osteotomized rabbit fibulae. A randomized, blinded study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 76: 489-501;
    8. Basset C.A.,Mitchell S.N., Gaston S.R. (1981), Treatment of ununited tibial diaphyseal fractures with pulsing electromagnetic fields. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981; 63:511-523;
    9. Mc Leod K.J.,Rubin C.T.,The effect of low-frequency electrical fields on osteogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992; 74:920-929;
    10. Bassett C.A., Mitchell S.N., Schink M.M., Treatment of therapeutically resistant non – unions with bone grafts and pulsing electromagnetic fields. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1982;64:1214-1220;
    11. C.T. Rubin, K.J. McLeod, L.E. Lanyon (1989). Prevention of osteoporosis by pulsed electromagnetic fields. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1989;71:411-417;
    12. Brighton C.T., Pollack S.R., Treatment of recalcitrant non – union with a capacitively coupled electrical field. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:577-585.
    1. Bistolfi P., Bistolpi P., Contributo clinico alla ultrasuonoterapia. Min.Pisiot. vol 2° pag.32;
    2. Casuccio C., Gli ultrasuoni in ortopedia. Atti 35° Congresso SIOT, Torino 1950, pag.347;
    3. Corradi C., Cozzolino A., Gli ultrasuoni e l’evoluzione del callo osseo nei focolai di frattura. Arch Ortop. Vol. 46, pag.77, 1953;
    4. Corradi C., Mattai del Moro V., Risultati di un biennio di ultrasuonoterapia nel campo ortopedico. Arch. Ortop. Vol. 46, pag. 52 – 1953;
    5. Franz E., Il trattamento fisico delle rigidità articolari post – traumatiche. Atti 38° Congresso SIOT, pag. 287 – 1953;
    6. Mignani G., Osservazioni cliniche sugli ultrasuoni. Arch Putti, vol. 2°, pag.324 – 1952.